a. Fundus Photography: a digital image of the interior back surface of the eye, including the retina, optic disc, macula, and posterior pole. This instrument is used for monitoring progression of disease or diagnosis of a disease, such as Glaucoma, Macular Degeneration and Diabetic Retinopathy.
b. OCT: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging test that uses light waves to take cross-section pictures of your retina and optic nerve. These measurements help with early detection, diagnosis and treatment guidance for retinal diseases and conditions, including age-related macular degeneration , diabetic eye disease, Glaucoma and Multiple sclerosis among others.
c. Visual Field: A visual field test can detect dysfunction in central and peripheral vision which may be caused by various medical conditions such as glaucoma, stroke, brain tumors or other neurological deficits. Visual field testing can be performed clinically by keeping the subject's gaze fixed while presenting objects at various places within their visual field
d. VEP: A visual evoked potential is an evoked potential caused by a visual stimulus, such as an alternating checkerboard pattern on a computer screen. Responses are recorded from electrodes that are placed on the back of your head and are observed as a reading on an electroencephalogram (EEG). These responses usually originate from the occipital cortex, the area of the brain involved in receiving and interpreting visual signals. The VEP is an important test that is very good at detecting problems with the optic nerve and lesions in the anterior part of our visual pathway, before the optic nerves merge.
e. pERG: Electroretinography (ERG) is a test used to detect abnormal function of the retina (the light-detecting portion of the eye). Specifically, in this test, the light-sensitive cells of the eye, the rods and cones, and their connecting ganglion cells in the retina are examined. During the test, electrodes are used to measure the electrical responses to light of the cells that sense light in the retina at the back of the eye. Wh